Glossary - B

BackDoor

A backdoor in a computer system (or cryptosystem or algorithm) is a means of circumventing regular authentication, securing remote computer access, accessing plaintext, etc., while remaining to be undetected. A backdoor may appear to be an installed program or a modification to a program or hardware device that's already installed.

Backup

A backup or a backup copy is an additional copy of data (generally files and folders) that is stored on another data drive or medium, or in another location. Backup data is used in case of loss or damage to the original data, or in other cases when it is necessary to work with information from the past that has been archived. A backup may run irregularly (e.g., at home), or on a regular schedule (e.g., in companies). When backing up large amounts of data, people usually use a specialized program that facilitates the entire backup process. To back up larger amounts of data, one can also use specialized equipment (hardware) that operates semi-automatically or fully automatically. Compared to archiving data, the process of backing up data facilitates the rapid recovery of the data. Different backup strategies are used for different purposes. Choosing the right strategy depends on whether you need to work with the backups often, or obtain the maximum archive length. There are other criteria that reflect specific conditions. Nowadays, there are more and more complex backup systems that allow users to effectively back up a group of computers connected via a computer network. Alternative ways of handling data including encryption, compression, or mirroring can be used to increase the backup speed and assist in recovery and data security.

Baiting

Baiting uses tangible media and relies on the curiosity or greed of the victim. Baiting involves an attacker leaving a malware infected media such as a CD ROM or USB flash drive in a public place where it is likely to be found, appearing to be legitimate and appealing, and waits to be used by the victim. Baiting is easy to perform as in this example where an attacker might create a malware loaded CD with a company logo on it, and the words "Company Reorganization Plan" on the front. The media is left on the lobby floor of the targeted company. An employee could find it and then insert it into a computer to satisfy their curiosity. By inserting the CD into a computer to view its contents, the user unknowingly installs malware on it, allowing the attacker access to his computer and possibly, the company's computer network. If there is no mechanism to block the malware, then computers set to "auto-run" inserted media could be immediately compromised when the CD is inserted.

Benchmark

A benchmark is a program (or set of programs) that is used to check the relative performance of the computer or its components. During the process, the benchmarking software collects the test data and then calculates performance results. Benchmarking applications are typically used for testing and writing reviews of computer components such as graphic cards and CPUs, as well as for comparing technologies, architecture, competitors, drivers, and etc. In order for the benchmarking data to be relevant to a user, he or she must be working in the same environment and with the same components as defined in the benchmarking process. Benchmarking results can help customers make informed purchase decisions.

BIOS

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) implements the basic input/output functions for the IBM® PC and compatibles, and is actually a firmware for personal computers. BIOS initializes upon startup, configures the connected hardware devices and then initializes the operating system, which is then in control of the computer. Program BIOS code is stored on the motherboard in non-volatile (permanent) memory ROM, EEPROM, or modern flash memory. Because the BIOS is very important, some companies started to produce motherboards with a dualBIOS system, where the data are stored on two chips to prevent the loss of the actual settings.

BitTorrent®

BitTorrent® is a tool for peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution, allowing data transmissions between all clients who download the data. BitTorrent® is popular for downloading large amounts of data such as Linux® distributions and also warez. The name "BitTorrent" is used as the name of the distribution protocol, as well as the original client application and type of file extension “.torrent”.

BitTorrent® was authored by Bram Cohen and introduced on CodeCon© 2002. The reference implementation is written in the Python® programming language and released under BitTorrent® Open Source License.

Files distributed via BitTorrent® are divided by the client into smaller pieces. Each leech (peer) can ask any other peer for missing pieces, and can share completely downloaded pieces with the others. Often the client may prefer less frequent pieces, or pieces of beginning files. Downloading with BitTorrent® is different from downloading via HTTP. With HTTP, the Web browser uses a continuous data transfer to download the entire file at once from one source, while BitTorrent® employs many small transmissions from different sources.

BMP (bitmap)

BMP (Windows Bitmap), or DIB (device-independent bitmap) is a computer format for storing raster graphics. BMP format was first introduced in 1988, as part of OS / 2 version 1.10 SE. Later, Microsoft® expanded its definition and included it in its then best-selling 16-bit graphical operating environments - Microsoft Windows® 3.0. The advantage of this format is its simplicity, good documentation and it is free to use. As a result it can be easily read and written by the majority of graphical editors in many different operating systems. BMP files usually do not use any compression. BMP files contain more information and are much larger than same size images saved in formats that use compression. When storing images requiring preservation of all information users prefer newer formats such as PNG, GIF, or TIFF.

Booting

Booting is the process that occurs when you turn on or restart your computer. The term boot comes from the slang term for the boot program; bootstrap. “Bootstrap” originally denoted a piece of leather sewn on top of boots that allowed them to be put on more easily by grabbing the strap and pulling. Sometimes the expression bootloader is used, especially if the operating system is being loaded from a remote computer (storage media, host system) via a communication line or computer network. The term describes the boot process; when the operating system or a part of the OS is copied from the data medium into the computer memory, and then the system starts. Booting complex machines (such as a PC) is usually a multi-stage process. This is due to the possibility of different storage media containing the operating system or its components, as well as the possibility of choosing from several available operating systems or different configurations when the computer is turned on. A basic bootloader usually also includes a configuration utility that typically starts when a certain key (usually Del, F1 on some computers) is pressed during the boot process. The boot device is the device from which the operating system is loaded. A modern PC BIOS supports booting from various devices, typically a local hard disk drive, an optical disc drive, a USB device, a flash memory card such as an SD card in a multi-media card slot, or a network interface card (using PXE). Older, less common bootable devices include floppy disk drives, SCSI devices, Zip® drives, and LS-120 drives. Typically, the BIOS will allow the user to configure a boot order. If the boot order is set to "first, the DVD drive; second, the hard disk drive", then the BIOS will try to boot from the DVD drive, and if this fails (e.g., because there is no DVD in the drive), it will try to boot from the local hard drive.

Botnet

Botnet is a collection of software robots, or bots, that are automatic and self-directed. Botnet is often associated with malware but can refer to the network of computers using distributed computing software.

Botnet generally refers to a group of compromised computers called zombie computers running software that is usually installed via worms, trojans or backdoors, under a common command-and-control infrastructure.

Browser plugin

A browser plugin is a software program that extends the capabilities of your Internet browser in a specific way. Not all browser plugins are harmful and some may be helpful. This category contains mostly dubious browser plugins such as "Search Assistant", toolbars, etc. that have been known to transmit user data to their creators or have been installed using covert means.


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